The role of TFF3 peptide in embryonic development

Dr. Nikola Bijelic, the lead author of the study on Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 in epithelial tissues Dr Nikola Bijedic, the lead author of the study on localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 in epithelial tissues
Dr. Nikola Bijelic, the lead author of the study on localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 in epithelial tissues

TFF3 (Trefoil factor family 3) peptide research is mostly focused on mucosal physiology and pathology. This peptide has a protective role in the mucosa, contributing to the protective effect of mucous layer and repair processes after the mucosal injury. It is considered to be a neuropeptide. Its expression is significantly altered in different inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors. These conditions are not limited to mucosa-related diseases, but include pathological changes in central nervous system, on the surface of the eye and cartilage.

There are very few scientific articles that investigated TFF3 peptide expression in embryo and its role in embryonic development. Our immunohistochemical study has provided valuable information about the localization of TFF3 peptide in embryonic epithelial tissues from different germ layers of developing mouse embryo (14-18 days old). This study is a useful reference to anyone performing research on TFF peptides, and a valuable addition to current knowledge on their expression in embryonic tissues.

TFF3 peptide was found in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, oral cavity, kidney tubules, and epidermis. Its presence was to a certain extent associated with the embryonic stage and epithelial differentiation. We have found no correlation between the presence of TFF3 peptide in epithelium and the germ layer the epithelium originated from.

The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with the differentiation of several specific types of embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation. Although TFF3 peptide was considered to be oncogenic in several studies, we believe that our results support a balanced perspective on TFF3 peptide being a molecular “tool” which may be used both by physiological and pathological processes. Furthermore, since tumors have some properties similar to that of embryonic tissues, a better understanding of the role of TFF3 peptide in embryonic development could improve the understanding of its function in tumor genesis and advancement.

 

Croatian language summary

Uloga TFF3 peptida u razvoju embrija

Istraživanja TFF3 (engl. Trefoil factor family 3) peptida uglavnom su usredotočena na fiziološka i patološka zbivanja u sluznicama. On ima zaštitnu ulogu u sluznici, gdje doprinosi učinku zaštitnog sloja sluzi, te pomaže procese cijeljenja nakon ozljede sluznice. Smatra se neuropeptidom. Ekspresija TFF3 peptida znatno je promijenjena kod raznih upalnih bolesti i malignih tumora. Ova stanja nisu ograničena samo na bolesti sluznica, već uključuju i patološke promjene u središnjem živčanom sustavu, na površini oka, te u hrskavici.

Vrlo malo je znanstvenih publikacija koje se bave ekspresijom TFF3 peptida u zamecima i njegovom ulogom u razvoju zametka. Naše imunohistokemijsko istraživanje dalo je vrijedne informacije o prisutnosti i smještaju TFF3 peptida u epitelnim tkivima zametka podrijetlom iz različitih zametnih listića mišjih zametaka (14-18 dana starosti). Ono je korisna referenca svima koji se bave istraživanjem TFF peptida, te je vrijedan dodatak trenutnim informacijama o njihovoj ekspresiji u tkivima zametaka.

TFF3 peptid nađen je u sluznici usne šupljine, želuca i crijeva, tkivu gušterače, sluznici dišnog sustava (u gornjim i donjim dišnim putovima), kanalićima bubrega i epidermisu. Njegova prisutnost bila je u određenoj mjeri povezana sa stadijem razvoja zametka i diferenciranosti epitela. Nismo pronašli nikakvu povezanost između prisutnosti TFF3 peptida u epitelima i zametnih listića od kojih potječu pojedini epiteli.

Uloga TFF3 peptida u migraciji i diferencijaciji stanica, imunosnom odgovoru i apoptozi, mogla bi biti povezana s diferencijacijom nekoliko specifičnih vrsta epitelnih stanica zametka. Također, TFF3 peptid može se smatrati markerom sazrijevanja epitela. Iako se u nekim istraživanjima TFF3 peptid smatra onkogenim, vjerujemo da naši rezultati podupiru uravnoteženo gledište o TFF3 peptidu kao o molekularnom „alatu“ kojim se mogu okoristiti kako fiziološki, tako i patološki procesi. Nadalje, obzirom da tumori imaju neka slična svojstva kao i tkiva zametka, bolje razumijevanje uloge TFF3 peptida u razvoju zametka moglo bi unaprijediti i razumijevanje njegove uloge u nastanku tumora i njihovom napredovanju.

Reference:

Bijelić N, Belovari T, Tolušić Levak M, Baus Lončar M. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo . Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2017 May 9. doi: 10.17305/bjbms.2017.1838. [Epub ahead of print]

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